Mining: mining, blasting. Kravtsov A.

Mining: mining, blasting. Kravtsov A.

Restore landscapes at the place of extraction of fuel and simple minerals.

Together, all these measures will help restore balance and harmony between man and nature. Nature will not take revenge on man with all sorts of natural disasters, earthquakes, floods, and he in turn will rationally use natural resources.

Conclusions. Thus, fuel minerals have played and continue to play a very important role in the life of society and each person in particular.

From time immemorial, people have used these minerals for their household purposes, but in very small quantities. With the development of science, industry and technology, the need for them has increased sharply. Namely free lab report writer online in such branches of the national economy: in energy, transport, heavy and light industry and in everyday life.

At present, no production process takes place without the products of processing of combustible minerals. And to meet the need for these breeds, mankind has invented many ways of extraction and processing. To improve processed products, people were forced to learn more about their formation, origin, occurrence, physical and chemical properties. And as a result of these studies, she classified them.

But no activity that results from the extraction and use of fuels is without negative consequences. And in order to prevent and prevent them, it is necessary to: master new environmentally friendly methods of extraction, processing, alternative energy sources and new methods of neutralizing harmful substances after incineration.


Large encyclopedia of schoolchildren. Encyclopedia – Geology. Bratychak MM, Grinyshyn OB Technology of oil and gas. Rudko GI Technogenic and ecological safety of the geological environment. Encyclopedia Fascinating journey around the world. Kovalev NK Origin of the oil industry Prykarpattia. Nemtsov VP Discovery and the beginning of development of coal deposits. Rebrik BM. “At the cradle of mining”. Textbook of chemistry for 10 class. Terpigoryev AM The riches of the earth’s subsoil. Ladin VG. Mining: mining, blasting. Kravtsov AI Combustible minerals, their search and exploration. Zemlyak KP Wonderful stone.Svinko JM, Gray M. Ya. Geology.


Irreversible water consumption of river runoff. Abstract

The value of irreversible water consumption for small rivers in our time has increased significantly and tends to increase further

The total volume of irreversible consumption of river runoff in small river basins, equal to 1.64 km3, is 14% of the total volume. Half of it falls on small rivers in the Dnieper basin, almost 20% – on the rivers of the Northern Black Sea coast.

The distribution of water use in the basins of small rivers is largely determined by the number of watercourses longer than 10 km in the basins of major rivers. This pattern is somewhat violated (in the direction of increase) on the small rivers of the Azov Sea.

The largest amount of water is taken from small rivers belonging to the Dnieper basin (33%). In the basins of the Dniester, Seversky Donets and Priazovye the volume of water intake is from 11% to 17% of the total volume of water intake from small rivers of the republic.

More than half of the national volume of irreversible consumption of small river runoff falls on the Dnieper basin (54%), and small rivers in the Danube, Dniester and Black Sea basins – 43%.

Making up 20% of the total national water intake from water bodies on land, small rivers provide 67% of the needs of agricultural water supply, 35% – irrigation, 25% – household needs.

Among the main river basins, the largest use of water resources of small rivers is characteristic of the Black Sea coast, where they provide almost the entire volume of water use, the Danube (77%), the Vistula basin (57%) and the Azov Sea (56%), and also the Dniester basin (51%).

The location of the main areas of irrigated agriculture in the south of the republic causes significant water consumption for irrigation from small rivers of the lower Danube (only in the basin 97% of irrigation is provided by water resources of small rivers), Black Sea ( 96%), Azov (37%), lower currents of the Dnieper (30%).

The largest share of the use of water resources of small rivers for production needs is characteristic of the Vistula and Dniester basins (58-61%), as well as in the Azov and Black Sea regions. But in the largest basin of the Dnieper in the republic of small rivers for such purposes is used only 9%. This is due to the fact that in the Dnieper basin the most water-intensive industries focused on water abstraction from the main riverbed. At the same time, in the Dniester basin, for example, the main industrial (chemical and oil and gas) enterprises are located in the catchments of its tributaries.

Small rivers of Crimea (Alma, Chorna, Belbek), as well as Olkhova, Kalchyk, Shostka, Uzh (Danube basin), where one water user has from 8 to 20 km2 of catchment area, suffer the greatest load in terms of the number of water users; the lowest load (more than 100 km2 per one water user) – in the basins of the rivers Lyadova, Mokri Yali, Borova, Yevsug, Zherebets. On other rivers, one water user has 22-93 km2 of catchment area.

The intensity of the use of small river runoff naturally changes depending on the degree of water supply of the territory and the development of productive forces. For small rivers of the Vistula, Danube and most rivers of the Dniester basin, the volume of water taken from their channels and underground horizons hydraulically connected to the river network does not exceed 5% of available water resources, even in low-water years 95 % supply. Only on the rivers Gnila Lypa and Lyadova this share is much larger.

A small part of the natural river runoff is used on the rivers of the Dnieper basin within the Polissya zone: from 9% of resources in the middle and 15% in the low-water year. Significant increases in water use on small rivers of this basin in areas of industrial and agricultural production (rivers Gnilopyat, Shostka, Stugna, Supiy, Zolotonosha, Bull, Mokri Yali, Solona, ​​etc.), which are 15-61% in the middle years, and in low-water they may exceed the available water resources of rivers.

Up to half of the average long-term runoff and almost 1.5 volumes of runoff of the low-water year are used on some rivers of the Southern Bug basin.

The most intensive use of water resources takes place on small rivers of the Seversky Donets basin, in the Azov Sea and the Crimea. In the average water years, the volume of water use here reaches 11-80%, 19-117% and 50-165%, respectively, and in low-water – on many rivers, water resources are used repeatedly.

In most small rivers, the reduction of river runoff due to water use does not exceed 20%. But for more than 30% of rivers, the irreversible consumption of water runoff is quite significant. So, if in average years on water content it is irreversibly used from 10-11% (Stallion, Borova) to 73-89% (Biyuk-Karasu, Black), then in low-water years water resources of the rivers Zolotonoshka, Byrd , Kalchik, Gruzky Elanchik are available, Kacha, Belbek, Chorna, Biyuk-Karasu and Alma do not provide domestic water needs in their basins.

In terms of the amount of irreversible water consumption, only small rivers flowing in the Vistula, Danube and Polissya basins are not a concern.

According to the UNECE Water Committee on Water Intensity Intensity Assessment, water use is considered satisfactory when less than 10% of river runoff is consumed. When using up to 20% of runoff, there is a need to limit water use and implement measures to regulate runoff. If the use exceeds 20% of the runoff, the water body is not able to ensure the socio-economic development of the region.

These restrictions for small rivers should be extremely possible, because with a larger irreversible consumption of water runoff significantly reduces the ability of the watercourse to self-regulation and disrupts the natural relationships of the small river ecosystem.

Even 40-50 years ago, the number of water consumers was relatively small. Water was used mainly by local industry (starch, leather, canning, soap and other industries), for watering gardens, watering livestock, recreation and more.

For example, in the early XX century. In the entire area occupied by the Rossi basin, there were only 80 factories, including 26 sugar factories, 13 distilleries, 11 honey factories, 10 cloth factories, 9 leather factories, 7 soap factories and 7 breweries. Water consumption for the production of these enterprises was small and was measured in hundreds of buckets.

In 1988, the number of water users in the Rossi basin reported to the statistical authorities was 219, and the amount of water taken for their needs reached almost 200 million m3, including 33 million m3 for the population, 93 – for production needs, 13 – irrigation, 36 million m3 – for agricultural water supply.


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Combustible minerals: general characteristics. Abstract

Formation of combustible minerals.